Investigations on the phytoplankton composition and trophic status of Lake Karagöl (Dikili-İzmir-Türkiye)




Phytoplankton, Biodiversity, Small lakes, TSI, TN:TP ratio



The phytoplankton composition, TN:TP ratios as the limiting factor on phytoplankton and the trophic Status of Lake Karagöl, a small volcanic-originated lake, were first investigated in this study. Additionally, the physicochemical parameters of the lake were measured. As a result of the investigations, 21 dominant taxa from four divisions among phytoplanktonic organisms were identified in Karagöl. Three taxa belonged to Cyanobacteria, eleven to Chlorophyta, six to Ochrophyta (only Bacillariophycea), and to one to Myzozoa. The average depth of the lake was calculated as 8.7 m. In line with the atmospheric temperatures brought by the Mediterranean climate prevailing in the region, surface water temperatures of the lake fluctuated between 23.0 °C (summer) and 6.5 °C (winter). Conductivity ranged from 780 to 423 µS and dissolved oxygen ranged from 15.3 to 7.3 mg l-1. The average scores of TSI (SD), TSI (Chl-a), TSI (TN) and TSI (TP) were calculated as 68.0, 55.1, 62.1 and 86.4 respectively. These TSI scores indicated that Lake Karagöl was at eutrophic or hypereutrophic levels. TN:TP ratio of the lake ranged from 9.8 to 7.2 and in this case, the Lake Karagöl food chain is nitrogen-limited because of the low TN:TP ratios. Dolichospermum flosaquae (N2-fixing heterocystous Cyanobacteria) was the dominant species in Lake Karagöl phytoplankton during the summer months when the high-water temperature. As a result of this study, based on phytoplankton composition, dominant algae groups (especially Cyanobacteria) and TSI scores, it was evaluated that Lake Karagöl (Dikili) has suitable environmental conditions for many algae species found in mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes and is in a very rapidly progressing hypertrophication process.


Akgöz, C. & Güler, S. (2004) Topçu Göleti (Yozgat) Alg Florası I: Epilitik ve Epifitik Algler. S.Ü. Fen Ed. Fak. Fen Derg., 23: 7-14.

Albay, M., Akcaalan, R., Aykulu, G., Tufekci, H., Beattie. K.A. & Codd, G.A. (2003). Occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria before and after copper sulphate treatment in a water reservoir, Istanbul, Turkey. Arch Hydrobiol Supp Algol Stud, 109:67–78.

Altınsaçlı, S., Altınsaçlı, S., & Paçal, F. P. (2014). Species composition and qualitative distribution of the macrophytes in three Turkish lakes (Kandira, Kocaeli, Turkey). Phytologia Balcanica, 20(1), 89-98.

Aysel, V.( 2005) Check-List of The Freshwater Algae of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 11 (1): 5-128.

Baykal. T., Açıkgöz, İ., Yıldız, K. and Bekleyen, A. (2004) A Study on Algae in Devegeçidi Dam Lake. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 457-472.

Biggs, J., Von Fumetti, S., & Kelly-Quinn, M. (2017). The importance of small waterbodies for biodiversity and ecosystem services: implications for policy makers. Hydrobiologia, 793, 3-39.

Carlson, R.E. (1977). A trophic state index for lakes. Limnology and Oceanography. 22:361-369.

Carlson, R.E. & Simpson, J. (1996). A Coordinator’s Guide to Volunteer Lake Monitoring Methods. North American Lake Management Society. 96 pp.

Çelekli, A., Albay, M., & Dügel, M. (2007). Phytoplankton (except Bacillariophyceae) flora of lake Gölköy (Bolu). Turkish Journal of Botany, 31(1), 49-65.

Cirik-Altındağ, S. (1982). Manisa - Marmara Gölü Fitoplanktonu. I -Cyanophyta, Doğa Bilim Dergisi, Temel Bilimler, 6 (3) : 67-81.

Conley, D. J., Paerl, H. W., Howarth, R. W., Boesch, D. F., Seitzinger, S. P., Havens, K. E., ... & Likens, G. E. (2009). Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science, 323(5917),

Downing, J. A. (2010). Emerging global role of small lakes and ponds: little things mean a lot. Limnetica, 29(1), 0009-24.

Elser, J. J., Bracken, M. E., Cleland, E. E., Gruner, D. S., Harpole, W. S., Hillebrand, H., ... & Smith, J. E. (2007). Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology letters, 10(12), 1135-1142.

Frenken, T., Brandenburg, K. M., & Van de Waal, D. B. (2023). Long‐term nutrient load reductions and increasing lake TN: TP stoichiometry decrease phytoplankton biomass and diversity in a large shallow lake. Limnology and Oceanography, 68(10), 2389-2401.

Gönülol, A. & Obalı, O. (1998). Seasonal Variations of Phytoplankton Blooms in Suat Uğurlu (Samsun-Turkey). Turkish Journal of Botany, 22: 93-97.

Gönülol, A. & Çomak, O., 1992, Bafra Balık Gölleri (Balık Gölü, Uzun Göl) Fitoplanktonu Üzerinde Floristik Araştırmalar. I -Cyanophyta, Doğa Tr. J. of Botany 16 : 223-245

González-Madina, L., Pacheco, J. P., Yema, L., de Tezanos, P., Levrini, P., Clemente, J., ... & Mazzeo, N. (2019). Drivers of cyanobacteria dominance, composition and nitrogen fixing behavior in a shallow lake with alternative regimes in time and space, Laguna del Sauce (Maldonado, Uruguay). Hydrobiologia, 829, 61-76.

Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2014) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 29 April 2014.

Huber-Pestalozzi, G. (1941). Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers. (Die Binnengewässer, Band XVI). Teil 2. (i) Chrysophyceen, Farblose Flagellaten Heterokonten. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlag-sbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.

Huber-Pestalozzi, G. (1942). Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers. (Die Binnengewässer, Band XVI). Teil 2. (ii). Diatomeen. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart.

Hustedt, F. (1930) Bacillariophyta Diatome Heft: 10 A Pascher DieSusswasser Flore Mitteleuropas. Ed. Gustav Fischer Pub., Jena, Germany,466pp.

Hustedt, F. (1945). Die Diatomeenflore Norddeutscher Seen Mit Besonderer Berücksichtigung Des Holsteinischen Seen-Gebiets. Arch. Hydro. 41:392-414.

Hutchinson, G.E. A. (1957) Treatise on Limnology Volum I: Geopraphy, Physics an Chemistry,.John Wiley, Newyork.

İşbakan-Taş, B., Gönülol, A. & Taş, E. (2002) A Study on the Seasonal Variation of the Phytoplankton of Lake Cernek (Samsun-Turkey). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2: 121-128.

Izaguirre, I., O'Farrell, I., & Tell, G. (2001). Variation in phytoplankton composition and limnological features in a water–water ecotone of the Lower Paraná Basin (Argentina). Freshwater Biology, 46(1), 63-74.

Jeppesen, E., Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J. P., Havens, K. E., Anneville, O., Carvalho, L., ... & Winder, M. (2005). Lake responses to reduced nutrient loading–an analysis of contemporary long‐term data from 35 case studies. Freshwater biology, 50(10), 1747-1771.

John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. (2003). The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles: An Identification Guide to Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. Cambridge University Press. New York. 701 pages.

Karacaoğlu, D., Şükran D. & Dalkıran, N. (2004) A Taxonomic Study on the Phytoplankton of Lake Uluabat (Bursa). Turkish Journal of Botany, 28: 473-485.

Karacık, Z., Yılmaz, Y. & Pearce, J. A. (2007) The Dikili-Çandarl› Volcanics, Western Turkey: Magmatic Interactions as Recorded by Petrographic and Geochemical Features. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 16: 493-522.

Kıvrak, E. & Gürbüz, H. (2005) Seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition and physical-chemical features of Demirdöven Dam Reservoir, Erzurum, Turkey, Biologia, Bratislava, 60/1: 1-8.

Koff, T., Vandel, E., Marzecová, A., Avi, E., & Mikomägi, A. (2016). Assessment of the effect of anthropogenic pollution on the ecology of small shallow lakes using the palaeolimnological approach. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 65(4), 221–233.

Komárek J. & Anagnostidis K. (1999). Cyanoprokaryota. Chroococcales. In: E. Ettl, G. Gärtnerand D. Mollenhauer (eds) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Bd. 19/1. Gustav Fischer JenaStuttgart, Lübeck Ulm: 548 pp.

Komárek, J. & Zapomelova E. (2007). Planktic morphospecies of the cyanobacterial genus Anabaena_subg. Dolichosperumum—1. part: coiled types. Fottea 7: 1–31.

Kosten, S., Huszar, V. L., Bécares, E., Costa, L. S., van Donk, E., Hansson, L. A., ... & Scheffer, M. (2012). Warmer climates boost cyanobacterial dominance in shallow lakes. Global Change Biology, 18(1), 118-126.

Kratzer, C.R. and Brezonik, P.L. (1981) A Carlson-Type Trophic State Index for Nitrogen in Florida Lakes. Water Resources Bulletin, 17, 713-715.

Labat, F., Piscart, C., & Thiebaut, G. (2022). Invertebrates in small shallow lakes and ponds: a new sampling method to study the influence of environmental factors on their communities. Aquatic Ecology, 56(3), 585-603.

Legnerova, J. (1965) The Genera Ankistrodesmus Corda and Raphidium Kützing and their Position In the Family Ankistrodesmusmaceae, Preslia 37: 1-8.

Madden, C.J. & Day, Jr. J.W. (1992).An instrument system for the high-speed mapping of chlorophyll-a and physicochemical variables in surface waters. Eustaries., 15(3): 421-427

Meyerhoff, J., Klefoth, T., & Arlinghaus, R. (2022). Ecosystem service trade-offs at small lakes: Preferences of the public and anglers. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 25(3), 1-11.

Moisander, P. H., Cheshire, L. A., Braddy, J., Calandrino, E. S., Hoffman, M., Piehler, M. F., & Paerl, H. W. (2012). Facultative diazotrophy increases Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii competitiveness under fluctuating nitrogen availability. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 79(3), 800-811.

O’Farrell, I., Sinistro, R., Izaguirre, I., & Unrein, F. (2003). Do steady state assemblages occur in shallow lentic environments from wetlands?. In Phytoplankton and Equilibrium Concept: The Ecology of Steady-State Assemblages: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology (IAP), held in Castelbuono, Italy, 1–8 September 2002 (pp. 197-209). Springer Netherlands.

Ortega-Mayagoitia, E., Rojo, C., & Rodrigo, M. A. (2003). Controlling factors of phytoplankton assemblages in wetlands: an experimental approach. In Phytoplankton and Equilibrium Concept: The Ecology of Steady-State Assemblages: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop of the International Association of Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology (IAP), held in Castelbuono, Italy, 1–8 September 2002 (pp. 177-186). Springer Netherlands.

Ongun-Sevindik, T. (2010) Phytoplankton Composition of Çaygören Reservoir, Balikesir-Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 10: 295-304.

Padisák, J., Borics, G., Fehér, G., Grigorszky, I., Oldal, I., Schmidt, A., & Zámbóné-Doma, Z. (2003). Dominant species, functional assemblages and frequency of equilibrium phases in late summer phytoplankton assemblages in Hungarian small shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia, 502, 157-168.

Padisák, J., Borics, G., Grigorszky, I., & Soróczki-Pintér, É. (2006). Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia, 553, 1-14.

Palmer, C.M. (1980). Algae and Water Pollution, Castle House Pub., London.

Paerl, H. W., & Paul, V. J. (2012). Climate change: links to global expansion of harmful cyanobacteria. Water research, 46(5), 1349-1363.

Philipose, M. T. (1967) Chlorococcales. I. C. A. R., New Delhi, 365 p.

Reynolds, C. S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli-Flores, L., & Melo, S. (2002). Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of plankton research, 24(5), 417-428.

Reynolds, C. S. (2006). The ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK, 535 pp.

Round, F. E. (1973) The Biology of The Algae, Edward Arnold, London,

Schafft, M., Nikolaus, R., Matern, S., Radinger, J., Maday, A., Klefoth, T., ... & Arlinghaus, R. (2023). Impact of water-based recreation on aquatic and riparian biodiversity of small lakes. Journal for Nature Conservation, 126545.

Şen, B., Çağlar, M. ve Toprak Pala, G. (2001). Tadım Göleti (Elazığ) Diyatomeleri ve Yıl İçindeki Dağılımları. F.Ü. Fen ve Müh. Bilimleri Dergisi 13, 2, 255-261.

Sims, P.A. (1996). An Atlas of British Diatoms. Illustrated by Horace G. Barber, & John R. Carter, arranged by Bernard Hartley. Biopress Ltd., Bristol, United Kingdom. 601 pp.

Smith, V. H. (1983). Low nitrogen to phosphorus ratios favor dominance by blue-green algae in lake phytoplankton. Science, 221(4611), 669-671.

Smith, V. H., Tilman, G. D., & Nekola, J. C. (1999). Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental pollution, 100(1-3), 179-196.

Sömek, H. & Balık, S. (2009). Karagöl’ün (Dağ Gölü, İzmir-Türkiye) Alg Florası ve Çevresel Koşullarının Mevsimsel Değişimi. E.Ü. Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 26 (2) : 121-128.

Sömek,H., Balık, S. & Ustaoğlu M.R., 2005, Topçam Baraj Gölü (Çine-Aydın) Fitoplanktonu ve Mevsimsel Değişimleri. S.D.Ü.Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(1): 26-32.

Soylu, E. N., & Gonulol, A. (2006). Seasonal variation in the diversity, species richness and composition of the phytoplankton assemblages in a shallow lake. Cryptogamie-Algologie, 27(1), 85-102.

Stoyneva, M. P. (2003). Steady-state phytoplankton assemblages in shallow Bulgarian wetlands. Hydrobiologia, 502, 169-176.

SWQR (2016). Regulation on amending the surface water quality regulation; [Access Date 2017 July 03]. Access Address 0415-18.htm (in Turkish)

Taş, B., Candan, A. Y., Can, Ö., & Topkara, S. (2010). Ulugöl (Ordu)’ün bazı fiziko-kimyasal özellikleri. Journal of FisheriesSciences. com, 4(3), 254-263.

Tas, B. (2012). Diversity of phytoplankton and trophic status in the Gaga Lake, Turkey. EES Technology Part A: Energy Sci Res, 30(1), 33-44.

Vaitomaa, J. (2006) The effects of environmental factors on biomass and microcystin production by the freshwater cyanobacterial genera Microcystis and Anabaena. Edita , Helsinki, Finland, 56 p.

van Wijk, D., Janse, J. H., Wang, M., Kroeze, C., Mooij, W. M., & Janssen, A. B. (2024). How nutrient retention and TN: TP ratios depend on ecosystem state in thousands of Chinese lakes. Science of The Total Environment, 170690.

Winslow, L. A., Read, J. S., Hansen, G. J., & Hanson, P. C. (2015). Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(2), 355-361.

Zhang, Y., & Prepas, E. E. (1996). Regulation of the dominance of planktonic diatoms and cyanobacteria in four eutrophic hardwater lakes by nutrients, water column stability, and temperature. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 53(3), 621-633.




How to Cite

Sömek, H., & Topkara, E. T. (2024). Investigations on the phytoplankton composition and trophic status of Lake Karagöl (Dikili-İzmir-Türkiye). Sustainable Aquatic Research, 3(1), 16–25.



Original Articles